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Friday, 16 February 2018

The Fight Against USURY

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Usury  Rothschild

by  Jüri Lina
Lending money at interest has been condemned by men such as Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch, Seneca and Cicero, early fathers of the Christian church; the majority of popes and councils up to 1830; likewise modern authors such as Goethe and Wagner.
The fight against usury goes back to the earliest known beginnings of civilization. From the days of Sumer to the present, decent people have struggled against this tool of the forces of darkness. Charging interest was condemned by the ancient Greek, philosophers. Money was to them something dead; something dead cannot be allowed to grow. Aristotle wrote in his work Politics (Book One, part X): "The most hated sort, and with the greatest reason, is usury, which makes a gain out of money itself, and not from the natural object of it. For money was intended to be used in exchange, but not to increase at interest. . . Wherefore of all modes of getting wealth this is the most unnatural."
Up until the end of the Middle Ages it was forbidden for Christians to charge interest. To charge interest on a loan was tantamount to murder and robbery.  Later, those who charged interest were treated as heretics.
Martin Luther stated plainly: "All usurers are thieves and belong in the gallows." Everyone who lent money at an interest rate of 5 to 6 percent was considered to be a usurer. During the Middle Ages only Jews were allowed to lend money with interest: In Deuteronomy a Jew is forbidden to charge interest from his brother. But the goy (non-Jew) was not his brother. And to Jewish extremists plunder was not unfamiliar.
In ancient Babylonia the legal interest rate was 30 percent on money and 50 percent on grain. In Assyria there was no upper limit for interest rate. The farmers were often so deep in debt that they starved to death along with their families. This led to ruthless exploitation of the soil.
Martin Luther, the founding father of the Lutheran Protestant Church, and others of his era condemned usury, Fiery preacher Jakob Strauss conducted a violent campaign against usury and tithes. Thomas Muentzer, an unruly genius, combined his own ingenious liturgical reforms with a program of holy war.
In the city of Uruk in Sumer there lived two brothers who lent money with interest. When a borrower no longer could repay his loan, he lost his house and had to start working for free for the brothers. The slave could be lent also to other employers. This is a classical example of economic slavery.
Almost 3,700 years ago the ruler of Babylon, Hammurabi (1848-1805 B.C.). who was descended from the Amorite dynasty, forbade through his legal acts (containing 93 paragraphs) the taking of interest on interest, which meant that the borrower had to give in addition to the assets he had borrowed the same amount in goods or money. Anyone who broke the rule was severely punished, though very few abided by it. The 282 statutes of Hammurabi, written in Akkadian, were found in 1901-02 at excavations at Susa in ancient Elani (now Iran).
The tribune Tiberius Gracchus of the Roman Empire tried in 133 B.C. to reduce the power of the moneychangers through stricter laws against usury and to limit the legal land ownership to lugeri (about 600 acres) per family. He was murdered the same year.
In 48 B.C. Julius Caesar deprived the moneychangers of the right to coin money and had it done himself. With a larger money supply he was able to erect many public buildings. Common people adored Caesar for his contribution to making money more available. After the murder of Caesar there was an end to the abundance of money. The money supply was reduced by 90 percent. Taxes rose sky-high. As a result most people lost their land and their homes. The slander of Caesar goes on even today.
The Freemasons wanted to acquire as much wealth as possible in order to serve their demons during the 19th and 20th centuries.
The Irish economist Margrit Kennedy has pointed out that a 1 percent loan is doubled in 70 years. A 3 percent loan with accumulated interest doubles in only 24 years. A 6 percent loan doubles in 12 years, and at 12 percent the amount is doubled in just sis years.
If anyone had lent one cent in A.D. 1 and charged a 4 percent interest; in 1750 he could have bought gold weighing as much as the whole Earth. (At 5 percent interest it would have been possible as early as the year 1403.) [n 1990 he would have been able to buy 12,246 such ''nuggets."
These extreme examples show how madly interest damages each country's economy.
After the so-called French Revolution the use of paper money was widespread.
The gold traders began practicing economic fraud to become even more powerful. They lent secretly part of the gold that had been deposited with them and kept the interest they made on such illegal loan. The gold traders then issued more receipts (bank notes) of gold deposits than they had gold, then lent these notes and charged interest on them Far more money was lent than what the creditor had cover for. Soon these money crooks lent as much as up to 10 times more than they had gold deposited.
This breach of trust has become common in all areas in the world of the Freemasons. The American banks have the right to lend 10 times more money than they actually have. This means that their interest actually is close to 80 percent and not 8 percent, which is officially claimed. The Masonic bankers create money out of nothing and force us to pay interest thereon.
The Prieure de Sion initiated, with the aid of the moneychangers (above all the Portuguese Rabbi Menasseh ben Israel, who lived in the Netherlands, and Antonio Fernandez Moses Carvajal), the insurrection of 1642, led by Oliver Cromwell, which in turn led to the first republic (commonwealth) in England in 1649. In the year 1643 a large group of rich Jews came to England. They met with the Portuguese ambassador in London, Antonio de Souza, a Maranno, where further moves were discussed. All their actions were coordinated by Carvajal.
Having deposed and executed Charles I in 1649, naming himself as dictator in 1653, Cromwell became bloodthirsty and hostile to cultural development, letting the moneychangers strengthen their financial power. Under the puritanical rule of the Lord Protector Cromwell, music and other cultural activities were practically banned. Even colorful garments were forbidden.
In November of 1688 (under the sign of the scorpion) the Catholic king of England James II (Stuart) was overthrown through a well-organized invasion financed by the moneyed Jews of Amsterdam and led by the Prieure de Sion and the Orange Order. The king was exiled to France and in February of 1689 William of Orange, the prince of Nassau, was put upon the English throne by means of a coup d'etat, which became known as the Glorious Revolution. Even official historians admit that the people did not participate in this coup.
England at that time was in poor condition after more than 50 years of war with France and the Netherlands, and the new king, William III (of Orange), asked several powerful bankers for help. They provided the English state with a loan of 1.25 million pounds but only delivered 750,000 pounds. The terms of the loan were as follows; the names of the lenders were not to be revealed, and these were guaranteed the right to found the Bank of England, whose directors were ensured to establish a gold reserve so as to be able to issue loans to a value of 10 pounds for each pound deposited gold in the bank vault. They also were allowed to consolidate the national debt and secure payment for annuity and interest through direct Taxation of the people.
The privately owned Bank of England was established in 1694 with absolute control over the currency (the right to issue bank notes). The lending of money on usury was able to continue at an even larger scale. Thus the English people suffered a huge national debt. Taxes had to be raised and prices doubled. To the Masonic bankers it was necessary to have a monopoly on money issuing. That way they were able to make enormous profits and also control political processes.
The Bank of England was allowed to lend money to an amount 10 times the security the lender put. up. With 5 percent interest it only took two years for the bank to earn back an amount equal to the original security.

By the year 1698 the national debt had risen from one and a quarter million pounds to 16 million. In 1815 it was 885 million pounds and in 1945 it had grown to 22.5 billion pounds. By 1995 the national debt had risen to more than 300 billon pounds, equal to 45 percent of GNP.
Not even the Macmillan Committee, which was appointed in 1929, managed to find out who governed the Bank of England. Only one name has leaked out—that of Rothschild. All great wars have been started and financed by the economic conglomerate emanating from one single banking family—the Rothschilds.
In the Netherlands, secret societies bad been able to found a central bank as early as 1609. About 40 of the world's most important central banks were established in a similar way as that of the Bank of England. In that way the Masonic bankers ruled the long-term development in the world with loan interest as a method, the central banks as middlemen, the politicians as dummies and the people as ignorant wage slaves. The freemason-controlled banks thus can govern political life by acting without being seen. The English people strengthened the power of these invisible Freemasons through paying taxes during three centuries. Central banks were supposed to keep the economy stable.
In reality it works quite differently.
Benjamin Franklin wrote of the British colonies in North America in the 1750s: "Nowhere on Earth does one find a happier and more well-being people." He explained that this was due to that "we in the colonies make our own currency," called "colonial scrip." He further explained: "By issuing our own currency we can control its buying power, and we are not obliged to pay interest to anyone."
In these British colonies in New England, there was a wealth contrasting sharply to the poverty and misery in England. There was enough money, and it was definitely interest free.
When the Masonic bankers in England heard Franklin's speech to the British Parliament, they made sure that Parliament forbade the colonies to use their own financial system and instead demanded they use interest money in gold and silver. Only an insufficient amount of this money was to be available. The money supply was reduced in half, and the colonies were forced to borrow money from the Bank of England. The result was steep interest and price increases. Within a year the streets were full of unemployed people.
In American schoolbooks the reason given for the outbreak fif the Revolutionary War was the tea tax. but according to Franklin "the colonies would gladly have borne the little tax" (of 2 percent) on tea and other matters had it not been that England took away from the colonies their money which created unemployment and dissatisfaction." The result of the influence of the English banks on the British Parliament was horrendous poverty in America. When this situation had been created, it was easy to get people ready for war which the Freemasons did with satisfaction. They wanted a safe base for their future global activities.
Among the men who drew up the Constitution of 1787, there were those who thought one should protect oneself against the financial drain of the international bankers. Therefore Article 1, Sec. 8 of the Constitution reads: "Congress shall have power ... to coin money, regulate the value thereof..."
Alexander Hamilton, a Freemason and secretary of finance in the government of George Washington, and also the agent of the international financiers, ordered the establishment of a privately owned union bank and the introduction of interest money. His argument was simple; "A limited national debt would he a blessing to a nation " He considered it dangerous for the government to issue its own currency.
Thus the United States got its first central bank in 1791. It was privately owned but had a contract running for only 20 years. It was not renewed when it expired. Andrew Jackson referred to the fact that the Constitution had given Congress the right to issue currency in sufficient quantity but not transfer this right to others.
The historian Richard Boesen disclosed that, the Freemason Nathan Rothschild (1777-1836), who in 1806 had founded his bank in London and who partly financed the Napoleonic wars through the Bank of England, subsequently issued an ultimatum—either the contract be renewed or there would be war. Jackson called the Masonic bankers a hunch of thieves and promised to exterminate them, Rothschild gave his own orders: "Teach those insolent Americans a lesson. Force them back to a colonial status."
The British government began to limit, the American sea trade and checked the American expansion in Canada. President James Madison in 1812 had no other choice but to let Congress declare war on England. The intention of the leader of the Freemasons, Rothschild, was to lay waste the country to such an extent that, the Americans would be forced to seek financial aid. Great Britain, however, failed to regain the lost colonies, and the United States failed to occupy Canada. The war was actually fought in 1814.
Many lives were lost, but Rothschild did not triumph this time. The renewed central bank contract was again suspended in 1836 during Andrew Jackson's presidency (1829-1837), despite the fact that he was grand master of Tennessee. The central bank was abolished.
Even so European bankers and their American agents managed to exercise an extensive control of the American monetary system. Gustavus Myers admits in his book History of the Great American Fortunes (1910): "Under the surface the Rothschilds had for a long period of time a direct influence by dictating the American financial laws. The legal records show that they were the ones in control of the old Bank of the United Slates."
In American history books there is nothing about the role of the banks in the first and second American wars of independence (that is 1775-83 and 1812-1814). Neither is there anything about the debt-free "greenbacks" that Abraham Lincoln issued. Their existence is only verified by a few encyclopedias.
To finance the American Civil War, which broke out on April 12,1861, President Abraham Lincoln was forced to utilize the right of the Congress to issue its own currency. Between the years 1862 to 1864, 450 million interest-free "greenbacks'" were printed. Lincoln promised at his re-election in 1864 to begin fighting the banks as soon as the war was over. Lord Goschen, the representative of the financial world, wrote in The London Times: "If this financial policy becomes permanent, the government can without expenses acquire necessary monetary provision. It can pay its debt and repay its loans without debt. It will have enough money to trade (on the open market). It is going to be more healthy than any other (before) in history. If we do not overthrow this government, it will overthrow us."
The North during the Civil War was financed by the Rothschilds through their American agent August Belmont (actually Schoenberg} and the South by the Erlanger brothers who were related to the Rothschild family.
The Civil War ended on April 9, 1865, and international Freemasonry got busy to remove President Lincoln.
The assassination of Lincoln was carried out by John Wilkes Booth (Botha), a Freemason of the 33rd degree, on April 15, 1865 in Washington, D.C., only six days after the end of the Civil War. Izola Forrester, Booth's granddaughter, stated in her book This One Mad Act (1937), that Booth belonged to the lodge Knights of the Golden Circle and also Giuseppe Mazzini's "revolutionary" movement Young America. Izola Forrester revealed in detail that the Freemasons were involved hi the assassination of the president. Booth was soon eliminated.
The above-mentioned Masonic lodge Knights of the Golden Circle was mixed up in the plot. This name had begun to be seen in the press, and so the Freemason leader Albert Pike in 1866 decided to rename it the Ku Klux Klan; "kyklos" in Greek meaning "circle."
It was officially founded as a new organization in 1866 in Pulaski, Tennessee. In 1882 it was banned. The present group with the name name was founded in 1915 by William Joseph Simmons and thus has not grown out of the Masonic lodge that existed in the 1860s and 1870s.
After the demise of Lincoln, things were "normalized." The amount of money in circulation, which in 1866 amounted to $1,9 billion or $50.46 per capita, had by 1876 been reduced to $605 million or $14,80 per person.
As a result there were 56,446 bankruptcies in 10 years and a loss of $2 billion. In 1887 the Masonic bankers reduced the money amount further to $6.67 per head. The Irish writer Margrit Kennedy stated in the book Interest and Inflation Free Money that the interest rate always goes up when there is a shortage of money. This in turn leads to bankruptcies and worsens the unemployment rate.
In American schoolbooks it is claimed that it was all for the good that the Democratic candidate for president in 1896, Wil-ham Jennings Bryan, was not elected, since he was against the gold footing and the "sound money" of the banks (that is money that creates debt). Bryan explained in his "Cross of Gold" speech at the Democratic National Convention, in Chicago on July 9. 1896: "When we have restored the money of the Constitution, all other necessary reforms will be possible, and that until that is done there is no reform that can be accomplished."
Bryan was not elected, and 17 years later, in 1913. Congress passed a bill (introduced by the Masonic President Woodrow Wilson), that purported to repeal the right of the Congress to issue currency and transferred this right to a "federal reserve" funding system.
Congressman Charles A. Lindbergh, father of the famous aviator, had the following to say about this: "When the president signs it, the invisible government of the money brokers has become legalized. The worst legal crime of the century is a fact. The day of reckoning is only a few years removed."
The man who played a very important role in providing the United States again with a central bank was Paul Warburg. He was a German immigrant, arriving in America together with his brother Felix. Both brothers became partners in tiie banking house Kuhn, Loeb & Co. led by the Illuminatus Jacob Schiff, who also belonged to B'nai B'rith. The Warburgs were supported by Nelson Aldrich (later to become grandfather to Nelson and David Rockefeller), known as the handyman in the Senate of John Pierpoint Morgan. The family of (Samuel Moses) Del Branco in 1559 moved from Italy to Germany taking the name Warburg. In 1798 the family founded the bank of M.M. Warburg & Co.
The 1907 financial panic had been caused by Masonic banker J.P. Morgan, historian Fredrick Lewis Allen concluded in 1949. This was used as pretense to show that there was a need for a central banking system.
Frank Vanderlip, who worked for Rockefeller, admitted in his memoirs: "I do not believe I exaggerate in saying that our secret excursion to JekyI Island was the actual beginning of that which eventually became the Federal Reserve System."
During the aforementioned JekyI Island meeting at the end of 1910 Paul Warburg had emphasized that the term "central bank" should be avoided under all circumstances. It was decided to present the project as a Regional Reserve System.
It was made sure that Morgan's candidate, the Freemason Thomas Woodrow Wilson, was elected president. His campaign was financed by Jacob Schiff, Bernard Baruch, Henry Morgenthau, New York Times publisher Adolph Ochs and other powerful Jewish financiers and Freemasons.
The high-ranking Freemason Edward Mandel House, by many historians considered the "actual" president of the United States during Wilson's administration, proposed in his novel Philip Dru: Administrator (1912), which was published anonymously, a transition to a progressive income tax and a central bank. These requirements were known from the Illuminati five-point program. House was in favor of forming a world government and adopting the kind of socialism Marx dreamed of. To accomplish this he was willing to use political fraud.
The Federal Reserve bill was presented the night of December 22. 1913, when most of the members of the congressional committee were asleep. That same day the bill hastily was pushed through the House of Representatives and the Senate, President Wilson signed the Federal Reserve Act and control over money supply was transferred from Congress to private Masonic bankers. Four times earlier the American people had managed to get rid of a central bank, but not the fifth time
The Federal Reserve Act was hailed as the victory of democracy over the money trusts, which was hardly the case. Paul Warburg immediately began working at the Federal Reserve for a salary substantially less than that he received as a banker. Neither the president, members of Congress nor the secretary of treasury have any authority over the Federal Reserve.
The Federal Reserve System is actually a cartel of 13 large private banks, of which the Bank of New York is the most important.
President Woodrow Wilson allowed the national debt to grow from $1 billion to $455 billion. Interest became the third largest post of the federal budget.
The United States borrowed up to $4 trillion from various private banks in 1992. At the same time the deficit was $285 billion. In 1991 another 2 million people were registered as poor in the United States. The national debt was slightly less than $1 trillion in 1980: in 1995 it was $5 trillion. The 32.9 million Americans who in the year 2002 lived in poverty were 1.3 million more than those of 2000 (31.6 million).
The economist Milton Friedman is convinced that the economic collapse of 1929 took place because the Federal Reserve System refused to buy government bonds, which would have given the banks more cash, and thus it, caused the monetary crash, which in tarn led to the deep economic crisis.
In the 1810s the Freemasons had been brought into Europe in order to prepare their socialistic revolutions. Particularly bad was the situation on Guernsey in 1815, one of the Channel Islands. Less than half the size of Jersey, it enjoys a mild and humid climate and fertile soil. People had no money to buy things; production stopped and workers went idle. Bankruptcy was near, since taxes to England and interest to lie creditors could not be paid, and no new loans were granted. The situation was desperate. People were beginning to leave the island and emigrate to Australia.

Paul Warburg, left, born in Germany in 1868. came to the United States for the purpose of "reforming" the financial system. In 1895, he married a daughter of Mr. Loeb, Jacob H Schiff (enter) also married a daughter of Mr. Loeb. The name of "Sen. Nelson Aldrich" (right) was, many years ago, a synonym for the Money Power. Aldrich was a leader on tariff and financial matters. He was desirous of the prosperity of the country, but that "prosperity" was written in banking balances. These were three of the top representatives of the organized usury of their era.

In 1815 Guernsey needed a new market hall. There was no money. Then somebody proposed that the island should avail itself of its ancient prerogative and issue its own interest-free money. At first the proposal was turned down, but as they urgently needed 5,000 pounds and only had 1,000 pounds in hand, the Bailiff Daniel de Lisle Brock in 1816 decided to issue 4,000 pounds in one-pound interest-free Guernsey state notes. This was in addition to the current supply of English pounds, which two main banks were circulating on the island already.
Work was begun on the market hall, everything being paid for with this new money. When the hall was finished, customers arrived, and business was better than expected. By 1822 the market hall was paid for. The 4,000 one-pound notes were destroyed. The first project with the new money was so successful that it was soon followed by others. Next a new road was needed; there was gravel, stone and plenty of labor—but no money to pay for it. In all, the states issued 55,000 pounds' worth of notes, which paid for the rebuilding of the market. A new school was built, then several more, the whole surroundings of the market hall were renewed, and several other public buildings were constructed, as well as widening of the streets. A new harbor was built along with the best new roads in Europe and sewers. The sum was paid for with taxation, and the notes were again destroyed. All these projects provided employment and economic stimulation.
In 1827 de Lisle Brock was able to speak of "the improvements which are the admiration of visitors and which contribute so much to the joy, the health and well-being of the inhabitants." Things had certainly improved since 1815. It is significant that the great depression never troubled Guernsey. There was no unemployment, and the income tax was 10 pence on the pound. Things got even better. The import of expensive English flour was reduced. The money supply never exceeded 60,000 pounds. Unemployment was practically nonexistent. Guernsey became a prosperous island community. But the Freemasons disliked this paradise, for fear that the idea should spread to other parts of Europe. In that case they would no longer be able to continue their destructive projects.
In 1830 the banks launched a counterattack and began to flood the island with their own notes. The bankers Finkelstein & Go, of London were the first to open an office on the island. There they started their propaganda for "better money," "real money." People believed this hogwash, which resulted in money shortage and loan applications in the banks. De Lisle Brock fought like a lion to save the island's sound economy and high standard of living—but to no avail. The intrigues and undermining work of the Freemasons steered the island economy over to the banks and their exploitation.
The Guernsey example of 1816 to 1837 speaks for itself. We can do without Masonic economy and do much better. But to try to do away with interest is considered the worst possible crime against humanity.
By 1837, 55,000 pounds had been put into circulation by the government for the primary purpose of local projects such as the sea walls, the roads, a new marketplace, a church and a college. These 55,000 pounds more than doubled the money supply, but there was no inflation.
In 1914, while the British restricted their own money supply, Guernsey issued more—another 140,000 pounds over the next four years. By 1958, over 500,000 pounds of interest-free money was in circulation on Guernsey, and still no inflation.
By 1990, there was a total of 6.5 million pounds in circulation, issued interest free. There was no public debt as in the rest of Britain, which was still paying for its war debts. And yet on Guernsey, prosperity was very much evident everywhere.
It was nothing new. In 1793, Liverpool suffered from extreme cash flow problems, and solved this by creating out of nothing by an act of Parliament some 300,000 pounds of non-repayable money, which was used for public works with great benefit to the city and its people. This issue of money by the Liverpool Corporation allevial.ed the immediate debt crisis.
On June 30,1934, the London magazine New Britain published a statement by the Freemason and former Prime Minister David Lloyd George: "Great Britain is a slave under the international financial powers."
The Masonic bankers during the last 25 years have lent money to the governments of the industrial nations, which find it harder and harder to repay their enormous debt. The private sector has become exactly that much richer. This monetary power has enough money to stop any intransigent politicians. Popularly elected politicians no longer have any means of conducting the policies they wish. They cannot take back their power until the debts are paid. For every dollar borrowed, the politicians relinquish more power. The developing countries are in much worse situation. They are not even able to pay interest on their loans.
During 1982-1990 the banks of the industrial nations received $1,345 trillion in interest and annuity from these poor countries.
The Argentine-German economist Silvio Gesell (1862-1930) wished to introduce "free money."  Margrit Kennedy relates in her book Interest and Inflation Free Money (1988) how adherents to Gesll's theory of a free economy in the 1930s made several attempts with interest-free currency in various countries, including Germany, Switzerland, Spain and the United Slates. Particularly successful was the model used in the small town of Woergl in the Tirol in Austria. In 1932 the ideas described m Gesell's book Die natwerlicke Wirtschaftsordnung (The Natural Economic Order, 1916) were introduced
In August 1932 the town council of Woergl issued their own bank notes, called work certificates, to a value of 32,000 schillings. Backed by an equivalent amount of ordinary schillings in the bank, the town put 12,600 work certificates into circulation. The fee on the use of the money was 1 percent per month or 12 percent per year. This fee had to be paid by the person who had the banknote at the end of the month, in the form of a stamp worth 1 percent of the note glued to its back.
The town paid for wages and building materials with this money. A ski-slope was built: streets were renewed as well as the canal system. They built bridges, improved roads and public services, and paid salaries and for materials with this money, which was accepted by the butcher, the shoemaker, the baker, by everyone.
The small fee made everyone put this money into circulation before using one's "real" money. Within a year 32,000 work certificates had been in circulation 463 times and thus had made possible the exchange of goods and services to value of 14,816,000 schillings. In comparison to the sluggish national currency it cmrulated eight limes as fast. Unemployment was reduced by 25 percent within a year. When, however. 130 communities in Austria began to be interested in adopting this model the Austrian National Bank on September 1. 1933, pro-liibited the printing of any local currency.
Unemployment returned, prosperity disappeared, and the situation was "nonnalizedv" that is, Freemasouized.
Economic Slavery
Interest charges are always included in today's prices, which makes all goods and services very expensive and leaves very little money in the wallet. The economic historian John King has pointed out that because of interest, businesses must constantly raise their prices. This is camouflaged as inflation. He recommended abolishing interest as soon as possible, so as to avoid economic catastrophe. Everyone must now help pay interest. It is included in all prices—about 77 percent of rental rates, for instance. Taxes and other fees and imposts add up. Thus we have become slaves of the bankers. All goods would be only half as expensive without interest payments. According to the Swedish historian Herman Lindqvist, the Freemasons decided in the 1810s that wages should be fixed at the poverty level. Such an attitude shows an enormous contempt for ordinary people. Between the years 1860 and 1910 almost a million Swedes left for America in connection with several years of famine, poverty and difficulties in providing for themselves.
During the Middle Ages conditions were much better than the Masonic myths claim. It has been calculated that a Saxony bricklayer, in addition to free food, made, in today's currency, at least 26,000 marks a month. Craftsmen normally received various benefits in addition to their wages. Despite the high wages, working hours were short, normally eight hours a day, and at work five and a half days a week. Minng journeymen in Saxony only worked six hours a day. Not until 1479 did they put in an extra hour. Often the journeymen enjoyed a free Monday, called "blue Monday," usually without wage reduction. This was terminated in Sweden with the 1669 guild order.
So as not to be confused with noblemen, craftsmen in Freiburg, in Saxony, were advised not to wear gold jewelry and velvet and satin clothes, even though they could well afford all this. The fact that the economy and cultural life flourished was due to the bracteate coins, which were the basis of a system with continuous withdrawal of coins, since they often broke. Withdrawal occurred thrice yearly and also served as taxation. Using old coins was not permitted. No one wanted to hang on to "bad" money, so as not to make a loss, since by exchange of 12 (old) coins one received only nine (new) ones. The economy prospered because the effect of interest-generating money was not present. There was to be no interest charged. For the frail, the old and the sick there were sick houses, and the rich usually provided housing, clothing and free meals for the poor.  Wealth was relatively evenly distributed at all levels of society.
All this disappeared when the Masonic bankers took control of the economy. From then on, no one could afford a decent life. To enable people to stand this misery, the lie that things were much worse before is propagated, which is certainly not true.
The current interest system makes it possible for those that already have money to get even richer, while those in need find it increasingly hard to make ends meet. From 1968 to 1982 the national income of West Germany increased by 300 percent, while the interest on the national debt increased by 1,160 percent In 1982 that interest amounted to 29 billion DM. When interest is abolished, inflation vanishes. Kennedy stressed in her book that the income tax must also be abolished. The government will have to be satisfied with a very low VAT; otherwise the gray economy will grow. As of now interest rates go up when there is not enough money available.
The European Community during the years 1982-88 lost up to 735,000 jobs due to the debt crisis, while the United States lost 1.8 million jobs during the same period.
The Swedish national debt was 1.4 trillion crowns in the fall of 1997, which makes Sweden more debt-ridden than either Brazil or Argentina. Interest on the national debt was 111 billion kronor yearly, which is about 40 billion more than the cost of old-age benefits. Every Swede owed various banks 158,558 crowns each in 1997. Half of Swedish national income goes to pay interest. Twenty-five percent of the export income went to support of the national debt in 1990. The head of the central bank, Bengt Dennis, said: "In the circles where I move, it is expected that Sweden keeps a high interest rate."
In the beginning of the 1990s the bankers Salomon Brothers, which had provided the Swedish, government with huge loans, demanded that the Swedish crown be devalued. The government complied.
Argentina went bankrupt in the spring of 2002, having a national debt of $132 billion. Two Jewish banks (Banco de Patricios and Banco de Mayo; collapsed in 1998 due to the owners' criminal activities. This was a final blow to the national economy.
The Italian national debt in the summer of 2001 was astronomically 2,391,663,000.000.000 lire ($145,831,500,000), roughly equivalent to 105 percent of the GNP.
The sultanate of Brunei in northern Borneo has free schools and free medical care. There is no tax and no VAT, but the standard of living is very high. Interest rates are very low. The country has enormous amounts of oil and gas, which is exported and has given them large incomes. The sultan, Muda Hassanal Bolkiah. is one of the richest men in the world. His assets are roughly estimated at $20 billion.
Norway also has oil and gas, but the politicians do not wish to abolish the income tax and other charges. Prices are horribly high: medical care means long lines.

On May 1, 1998, exactly 222 years after the founding of the order of the Illuminati (222 being a third of 666. which in turn tsa third of 1998), the European Central Bank was established, actually a cartel of private banks. All of the people shall be in debt through taxation. The Masonic bankers are thus trying to realize the Knights Templars' ancient idea of creating a European super state by means of the banking system.
The Danish "no" to the "euro" at a referendum in September 2000 and the Swedish "no" in September 2003 showed, however, that not everything goes as planned. One does not have to be a prophet to see that the euro does not stabilize the economy, though one must not say it out aloud. Bernard Connolly, who was head of the department of currency policy at the European Commission in Brussels, in 1996 published a book, The Rotten Heart of Europe, claiming that fixed exchange rates and the monetary union (EMU) would lead to instability and growing unemployment. He felt the result would be horrifying. Connolly was summarily fired.
At a visit to Sweden in August 2003, Connolly stressed that the introduction of the euro would lead to economic disaster and to the fall of the European democracies. He warned that the euro is used as a pretext for forming an economic, political and military super state.
The problems have become worse in southern Europe. Portugal for instance is already at the brink of a political breakdown, and riots in the streets are not far away. This will then spread to the rest of Europe. He compared the situation to the economic collapse in Argentina, but the EMU countries are worse off. Argentina was able to cut its connection to the dollar, but EMU countries cannot abandon the euro.
One meter was one meter in 1910, just as now. A liter is a liter, but a Swedish krona of 2004 is no longer worth the same as in 1910. Its value has sharply declined. Is that not strange?
Swedish and U.S. official statistics state that in the year 2000, roughly 140 percent of the average working man's income went to necessities such as food, living, clothing, education medical care, as compared to 75 percent in the early 1970s. Today it is barely enough for both parents to work to make ends meet.

Count Cherep-Spiridovitch, a tsarist general who battled the Bolsheviks in the Russian Revolution, published a book in 1926 entitled The Secret World Government which shows how the Rothschilds plan for world tyranny dominates modern history. He cites an interview with German Chancellor Otto van Bismarck in 1876, in which Bismarck explained that the Rothschilds who already controlled Europe, were afraid, in the middle of the 19th century, that the United States would become independent of them if it remained one nation. The plan, therefore, was to divide the United States between England (controlled by Lionel Rothschild) and France (controlled by James Rothschild). France was to take over the South while British Canada annexed the defeated North. As a preparatory move, in 1863, France and Spain invaded Mexico with 30,000 troops. Britain, France and other European powers were ready to snuff out the young republic but were deterred by Russia, the only European nation not in the Rothschilds' thrall.  Tsar Alexander II sent his fleets to New York and San Francisco and declared that an attack on the United States was an attack on Russia. Meanwhile the U.S. Congress, stimulated by Lincoln, created "greenback" dollars to finance the war and escape indebtedness to the foreign financiers. 'They [the Rothschilds] understood at once that the United States would escape their grip," Bismarck said. "The death of Lincoln was resolved upon. Nothing [was] easier than, to find a fanatic to strike." Cherep-Spiridovitch concludes: "According to Bismarck the awful Civil War in America was fomented by a Jewish conspiracy and Abraham Lincoln ..was killed by the same Hidden Hand that killed six Romanov tsars, 10 kings and scores of ministers only to more easily bleed their nations?
In the 1970s the total value of the world trade of industrial goods was 50 percent, the rest was in stocks and shares. In the year 2001 the relation was 1 percent goods and 99 percent with securities. Speculation dominates.
The current monetary system encourages fraud and extension of the gray economy and has led to the fact that those who constantly are in need of money lose more and more to those who have far more than they need. More and more money is collected in the hands of certain individuals, who happen to be Masonic bankers. If interest is abolished, everyone benefits from the new system, not only the 80 percent considered poor.
Alfred Herrhausen, member of the hoard of Deutsche Bank, has pointed out: "Those responsible for the current monetary system, know very well that it cannot last, but they do not know any alternative or do not want, to know of any."
To the Freemasons it is important to keep us in economic slavery; otherwise they would have done everything to abolish interest. Through taxes and duty the government owns most of the result of the economic activities of the people. What are then the  Freemasons' beautiful phrases of humanism really worth? The Masonic leaders' foremost goal has been to conceal as best as they can the current economic slavery, One must ask oneself if they have been successful.
"Bonniers stora lexikon"/ Bonnier's Encyclopaedia, Stockholm. 1985, 252.
Diagnosen (German magazine), February 1986
Daniel. John. Scarlet and the Beast, Vol III. Tyler, U.S.A.
Grubiak, Olive & Jan, The Guernsey Experiment, Omni Publicatlions, 1960.
Jaikaran. Dr. Jacques S,. The Debt Virus: A Compelling Solution to the Warm Debt Problems, 1992
Kennedy, Margrit. Interest and Inflation Free Money, Goeteborg 1993.137-39.
JURI LINA an internationally renowned writer. His chief specialty is political economy, with a specific concentration on the connection between finance and political regimes. He presently lives in Sweden.

Friday, 2 February 2018

Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler

Image result for ig farben
excerpts from the book

Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler

by Anthony C. Sutton


[The] build-up for European war [WWII] both before and after 1933 was in great part due to Wall Street financial assistance in the 1920s to create the German cartel system, and to technical assistance from well-known American firms ... to build the German Wehrmach.

... The contribution made by American capitalism to German war preparations before 1940 can only be described as phenomenal.

[The] interplay of ideas and cooperation between Hjalmar Schacht [Hitler's financial advisor] in Germany and, through Owen Young, the J. P. Morgan interests in New York, was only one facet of a vast and ambitious system of cooperation and international alliance for world control. As described by Carroll Quigley, this system was "... nothing less than to create a world system of financial control, in private hands, able to dominate the political system of each country and the economy of the world as a whole."

This feudal system worked in the 1920s, as it works today, through the medium of the private central bankers in each country who control the national money supply of individual economies. In the 1920s and 1930s, the New York Federal Reserve System, the Bank of England, the Reichsbank in Germany, and the Banque de France also more or less influenced the political apparatus of their respective countries indirectly through control of the money supply and creation of the monetary environment. More direct influence was realized by supplying political funds to, or withdrawing support from, politicians and political parties in the United States, for example, President Herbert Hoover blamed his 1932 defeat on withdrawal of support by Wall Street and the switch of Wall Street finance and influence to Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Politicians amenable to the objectives of financial capitalism, and academics prolific with ideas for world control useful to the international bankers, are kept in line with a system of rewards and penalties. In the early 1930s the guiding vehicle for this international system of financial and political control, called by Quigley the "apex of the system," was the Bank for International Settlements [BIS] in Basle, Switzerland. The B.I.S. apex continued its work during World War II as the medium through which the bankers - who apparently were not at war with each other - continued a mutually beneficial exchange of ideas, information, and planning for the post-war world.

Two cartels, I. C. Farben and Vereinigte Stahlwerke, produced 95 percent of German explosives in 1937-38 on the eve of World War II. This production was from capacity built by American loans and to some extent by American technology.

The I. G. Farben-Standard Oil cooperation for production of synthetic oil from coal gave the I. C. Farben cartel a monopoly of German gasoline production during World War II. Just under one half of German high octane gasoline in 1945 was produced directly by I. G. Farben and most of the balance by its affiliated companies.

... American assistance to Nazi war efforts extended into other areas. The two largest tank producers in Hitler's Germany were Opel, a wholly owned subsidiary of General Motors (controlled by the J. P. Morgan firm), and the Ford A. G. subsidiary of the Ford Motor Company of Detroit. The Nazis granted tax-exempt status to Opel in 1936, to enable General Motors to expand its production facilities. General Motors obligingly reinvested the resulting profits into German industry. Henry Ford was decorated by the Nazis for his services to Naziism. Alcoa and Dow Chemical worked closely with Nazi industry with numerous transfers of their domestic U.S. technology. Bendix Aviation, in which the J. P. Morgan-controlled General Motors firm had a major stock interest, supplied Siemens & Halske A. G. in Germany with data on automatic pilots and aircraft instruments. As late as 1940, in the "unofficial war," Bendix Aviation supplied complete technical data to Robert Bosch for aircraft and diesel engine starters and received royalty payments in return.

In brief, American companies associated with the Morgan-Rockefeller international investment bankers - not, it should be noted, the vast bulk of independent American industrialists - were intimately related to the growth of Nazi industry... General Motors, Ford, General Electric, DuPont and the handful of U.S. companies intimately involved with the development of Nazi Germany were - except for the Ford Motor Company - controlled by the Wall Street elite - the J. P. Morgan firm, the Rockefeller Chase Bank and to a lesser extent the Warburg Manhattan bank.

Germany could not have gone to war in 1939 without I. G. Farben. Between 1927 and the beginning of World War II, I.G. Farben doubled in size, an expansion made possible in great part by American technical assistance and by American bond issues, such as the one for $30 million offered by National City Bank. By 1939 I. G. acquired a participation and managerial influence in some 380 other German firms and over 500 foreign firms. The Farben empire owned its own coal mines, its own electric power plants, iron and steel units, banks, research units, and numerous commercial enterprises. There were over 2,000 cartel agreements between I. G. and foreign firms - including Standard Oil of New Jersey, DuPont, Alcoa, Dow Chemical, and others in the United States. The full story of I.G. Farben and its world-wide activities before World War II can never be known, as key German records were destroyed in 1945 in anticipation of Allied victory. However, one post-war investigation by the U.S. War Department concluded that:

Without I.G.'s immense productive facilities, its intense research, and vast international affiliations, Germany's prosecution of the war would have been unthinkable and impossible; Farben not only directed its energies toward arming Germany, but concentrated on weakening her intended victims, and this double-barreled attempt to expand the German industrial potential for war and to restrict that of the rest of the world was not conceived and executed 'in the normal course of business." The proof is overwhelming that I. G. Farben officials had full prior knowledge of Germany's plan for world conquest and of each specific aggressive act later undertaken ....

Directors of Farben firms (i.e., the "I. G. Farben officials" referred to in the investigation) included not only Germans but also prominent American financiers. This 1943 U.S. War Department report concluded that I.G.'s assignment from Hitler in the prewar period was to make Germany self-sufficient in rubber, gasoline, lubricating oils, magnesium, fibers, tanning agents, fats, and explosives. To fulfill this critical assignment, vast sums were spent by I.G. on processes to extract these war materials from indigenous German raw materials - in particular the plentiful German coal resources. Where these processes could not be developed in Germany they were acquired from abroad under cartel arrangements. example, the process for iso-octane, essential for aviation fuels, was obtained from the United States ...

There were numerous Farben arrangements with American firms, including cartel marketing arrangements, patent agreements, and technical exchanges as exemplified in the Standard Oil-Ethyl technology transfers mentioned above. These arrangements were used by I.G.. to advance Nazi policy abroad, to collect strategic information, and to consolidate a world-wide chemical cartel.

One of the more horrifying aspects of I.G.. Farben's cartel was the invention, production, and distribution of the Zyklon B gas, used in Nazi concentration camps. Zyklon B was pure Prussic acid, a lethal poison produced by I.G.. Farben Leverkusen and sold from the Bayer sales office through Degesch, an independent license holder. Sales of Zyklon B amounted to almost three-quarters of Degesch business; enough gas to kill 200 million humans was produced and sold by I.G.. Farben. The Kilgore Committee report of 1942 makes it clear that the I.G.. Farben directors had precise knowledge of the Nazi concentration camps and the use of I.G.. chemicals.

I.G. Farben's cartel arrangements promoted Nazi economic warfare - the outstanding example being the voluntary Standard Oil of New Jersey restriction on development of synthetic rubber in the United States at the behest of I. G. Farben. As the War Department report puts it:

The story in short is that because of Standard Oil's determination to maintain an absolute monopoly of synthetic rubber developments in the United States, it fully accomplished I.G.'s purpose of preventing United States production by dissuading American rubber companies from undertaking independent research in developing synthetic rubber processes.


In 1945 Dr. Oskar Loehr, deputy head of the I.G. "Tea Buro," confirmed that I. G. Farben and Standard Oil of New Jersey operated a "preconceived plan" to suppress development of the synthetic rubber industry in the United States, to the advantage of the German Wehrmacht and to the disadvantage of the United States in World War II.

Wall Street establishment financiers ... directed the activities of American I.G., the I.G. Farben affiliate in the United States promoting Nazi propaganda.

The board of American I.G. had three directors from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, the most influential of the various Federal Reserve Banks. American I.G. also had interlocks with Standard Oil of New Jersey, Ford Motor Company, Bank of Manhattan (later to become the Chase Manhattan), and A.E.G. (German General Electric). Second, three members of the board of this American I.G. were found guilty at Nuremburg War Crimes Trials. These were the German, not the American, members. Among these Germans was Max Ligner, director of the I.G. Farben N. W. 7 office in Berlin, i.e., the Nazi pre-war intelligence office. If the directors of a corporation are collectively responsible for the activities of the corporation, then the American directors should also have been placed on trial at Nuremburg, along with the German directors - that is, if the purpose of the trials was to determine war guilt. Of course, if the purpose of the trials had been to divert attention away from the U.S. involvement in Hitler's rise to power, they succeeded very well in such an objective.

The multi-national giant General Electric has an unparalleled role in twentieth-century history. The General Electric Company electrified the Soviet Union in the 1920s and 1930s, and fulfilled for the Soviets Lenin's dictum that "Socialism = electrification." The Swope Plan, created by General Electric's one-time president Gerard Swope, became Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal ...

The tap root of modern corporate socialism runs deep into the management of two affiliated multi-national corporations: General Electric Company in the United States and its foreign associates including German General Electric (A.E.G.), and Osram in Germany.

I.G. Farben was the most important of the domestic financial backers of Hitler ... I.G. Farben controlled American I.G. Moreover, several directors of A.E.G. were also on the board of I.G. Farben...

Almost all of the German directors or German General Electric were financial supporters of Hitler and associated not only with A.E.G. but with other companies financing Hitler.

German General Electric contributed substantial sums Hitler's political fund. There were four American directors of A.E.G. (Baldwin, Swope, Minor, and Clark), which was 30 percent owned by International General Electric. Further, I.G.E. and the four American directors were the largest single interest and consequently had the greatest single influence in A.E.G. actions and policies. Even further, almost all other directors of A.E.G. were connected with firms (I. G. Farben, Accumulatoren Fabrik, etc.) which contributed directly - as firms - to Hitler's political fund. However, only the German directors of A.E.G. were placed on trial in Nuremburg in 1945.

By 1939 the German electrical industry had become closely affiliated with two U.S. firms: International General Electric and International Telephone and Telegraph.

... In 1939 the German electrical equipment industry was concentrated into a few major corporations linked in an international cartel and by stock ownership to two major U.S. corporations. This industrial complex was never a prime target for bombing in World War II. The A.E.G. and I.T.T. plants were hit only incidentally in area raids and then but rarely. The electrical equipment plants bombed as targets were not those affiliated with U. S. firms. It was Brown Boveri at Mannheim and Siemensstadt in Berlin - which were not connected with the U.S. - who were bombed. As a result, German production of electrical war equipment rose steadily throughout World War II, peaking as late as 1944. According to the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey reports, "In the opinion of Speers' assistants and plant officials, the war effort in Germany was never hindered in any important manner by any shortage of electrical equipment."

General Electric was prominent in financing Hitler, it profited handsomely from war production - and yet it managed to evade bombing in World War II.

The Standard Oil group of companies, in which the Rockefeller family owned a one-quarter (and controlling) interest,' was of critical assistance in helping Nazi Germany prepare for World War II. This assistance in military preparation came about because Germany's relatively insignificant supplies of crude petroleum were quite insufficient for modern mechanized warfare; in 1934 for instance about 85 percent of German finished petroleum products were imported. The solution adopted by Nazi Germany was to manufacture synthetic gasoline from its plentiful domestic coal supplies. It was the hydrogenation process of producing synthetic gasoline and iso-octane properties in gasoline that enabled Germany to go to war in 1940-and this hydrogenation process was developed and financed by the Standard Oil laboratories in the United States in partnership with I.G. Farben.

Evidence presented to the Truman, Bone, and Kilgore Committees after World War II confirmed that Standard Oil had at the same time seriously imperiled the war preparations of the United States." Documentary evidence was presented to all three Congressional committees that before World War II Standard Oil had agreed with I.G. Farben, in the so-called Jasco agreement, that synthetic rubber was within Farben's sphere of influence, while Standard Oil was to have an absolute monopoly in the U.S. only if and when Farben allowed development of synthetic rubber to take place in the U.S.:

Senate Kilgore Committee

Standard [Oil] fully accomplished I. G. 's purpose of preventing United States production by dissuading American rubber companies from undertaking independent research in developing synthetic rubber processes.


Regrettably, the Congressional committees did not explore an even more ominous aspect of this Standard Oil-I.G. Farben collusion: that at this time directors of Standard Oil of New Jersey had not only strategic warfare affiliations to I.G. Farben, but had other links with Hitler's Germany to the extent of contributing, through German subsidiary companies, to Heinrich Himmier's personal fund and with membership in Himmler's Circle of Friends as late as 1944.

During World War II Standard Oil of New Jersey was accused of treason for this pre-war alliance with Farben, even while its continuing wartime activities within Himmler's Circle of Friends were unknown. The accusations of treason were vehemently denied by Standard Oil.

The transfer of ethyl technology for the Nazi war machine was repeated in the case of synthetic rubber. There is no question that the ability of the German Wehrmacht to fight World War II depended on synthetic rubber - as well as on synthetic petroleum - because Germany has no natural rubber, and war would have been impossible without Farben's synthetic rubber production.

Standard Oil of New jersey was intimately associated with I.G. Farben's synthetic rubber. A series of joint cartel agreements were made in the late 1920s aimed at a joint world monopoly of synthetic rubber.

The multi-national giant international Telephone and Telegraph (I.T.T.)' was founded in 1920 by Virgin Islands-born entrepreneur Sosthenes Behn. During his lifetime Behn was the epitome of the politicized businessman, earning his profits and building the I.T.T. empire through political maneuverings rather than in the competitive market place.

There is no record that I.T.T. made direct payments to Hitler before the Nazi grab for power in 1933. On the other hand, numerous payments were made to Heinrich Himmler in the late 1930s and in World War II itself through I.T.T. German subsidiaries.

Nazi Baron Kurt von Schröder became the guardian of I.T.T. interests in Germany. Schröder acted as the conduit for I.T.T. money funneled to Heinrich Himmler's S. S. organization in 1944, while World War II was in progress, and the United states was at war with Germany.

Through Kurt Schröder, Behn and his I.T.T. gained access to the profitable German armaments industry and bought substantial interest in German armaments firms, including Focke-Wolfe aircraft. These armaments operations made handsome profits, which could have been repatriated to the United States parent company. But they were reinvested in German rearmament. This reinvestment of profits in German armament firms suggests that Wall Street claims it was innocent of wrongdoing in German rearmament - and indeed did not even know of Hitler's intentions - are fraudulent. Specifically, I.T.T. purchase of a substantial interest in Focke-Wolfe meant,(as Anthony Sampson has pointed out) that I.T.T. was producing German planes used to kill Americans and their allies - and it made excellent profits out of the enterprise.

Henry Ford, 1938 New York Times interview

If somebody would focus the spotlight on twenty-five persons who handle the nation's finances, the world's real warmakers would be brought into bold relief.

... if these financiers had their way we'd be in a war now. They want war because they make money out of such conflict - out of the human misery that wars bring.


It was Henry Ford who in the 1930s built the Soviet Union's first modern automobile plant ... and which in the 50s and 60s produced the trucks used by the North Vietnamese to carry weapons and munitions for use against Americans. At about the same time, Henry Ford was also the most famous of Hitler's foreign backers, and he was rewarded in the 1930s for this long-lasting support with the highest Nazi decoration for foreigners.

This Nazi favor aroused a storm of controversy in the United States and ultimately degenerated into an exchange of diplomatic notes between the German Government and the State Department. While Ford publicly protested that he did not like totalitarian governments, we find in practice that Ford knowingly profited from both sides of World War II from French and German plants producing vehicles at a profit for the Wehrmacht, and from U. S. plants building vehicles at a profit for the U. S. Army.

Henry Ford's protestations of innocence suggest that he did not approve of Jewish financiers profiting from war ... but if anti-Semitic Morgan and Ford profited from that was acceptable, moral and "constructive."

On December 20, 1922 the New York Times reported that automobile manufacturer Henry Ford was financing Adolph Hitler's nationalist and anti-Semitic movements in Munich.

December 20, 1922 the New York Times

The wall behind his desk in Hitler's private office is decorated with a large picture of Henry Ford. In the antechamber there is a large table covered with books, nearly all of which are a translation of a book written and published by Henry Ford.

[Henry] Ford funds were used by Hitler to foment the Bavarian rebellion. The rebellion failed, and Hitler was captured and subsequently brought to trial. In February 1923 at the trial, vice president Auer of the Bavarian Diet testified:

The Bavarian Diet has long had the information that the Hitler movement was partly financed by an American anti-Semitic chief, who is Henry Ford.

... Herr Hitler openly boasts of Mr. Ford's support and praises Mr. Ford as a great individualist and a great anti-Semite. A photograph of Mr. Ford hangs in Herr Hitler's quarters, which is the center of monarchist movement.

Hitler received a mild and comfortable prison sentence for his Bavarian revolutionary activities. The rest from more active pursuits enabled him to write Mein Kampf. Henry Ford's book, The International Jew, earlier circulated by the Nazis, was translated by them into a dozen languages, and Hitler utilized sections of the book verbatim in writing Mein Kampf.'

A post-war Congressional subcommittee investigating American support for the Nazi military effort described the manner in which the Nazis succeeded in obtaining U.S. technical and financial assistance as "quite fantastic." Among other evidence the Committee was shown a memorandum prepared in the offices of Ford-Werke A.G. on November 25, 1941, written by Dr. H. F. Albert to R. H. Schmidt, then president of the board of Ford- Werke AG. The memo cited the advantages of having a majority of the German firm held by Ford Motor Company in Detroit. German Ford had been able to exchange Ford parts for rubber and critical war materials needed in 1938 and 1939 "and they would not have been able to do that if Ford had not been owned by the United States." Further, with a majority American interest German Ford would "more easily be able to step in and dominate the Ford holdings throughout Europe." It was even reported to the Committee that two top German Ford officials had been in a bitter personal feud about who was to control Ford of England, such that one of them finally got up and left the room in disgust."

According to evidence presented to the Committee, Ford-Werke A.G. was technically transformed in the late 1930s into a German company. All vehicles and their parts were produced in Germany, by German workers using German materials under German direction and exported to European and overseas territories of the United States and Great Britain. Any needed foreign raw materials, rubber and nonferrous metals, were obtained through the American Ford Company.

In July 1942 word filtered back to Washington from Ford of France about Ford's activities on behalf of the German war effort in Europe. The incriminating information was promptly buried and even today only part of the known documentation can be traced in Washington.

There is documentary evidence that Ford Motor Company worked on both sides of World War II. If the Nazi industrialists brought to trial at Nuremburg were guilty of crimes against mankind, then so must be their fellow collaborators in the Ford family, Henry and Edsel.

Behind the battle fronts in World War II, through intermediaries in Switzerland and North Africa, the New York financial elite collaborated with the Nazi regime. Captured files after the war yielded a mass of evidence demonstrating that for some elements of Big Business, the period 1941-5 was "business as usual." For instance, correspondence between U.S. firms and their French subsidiaries reveals the aid given to the Axis military machine - while the United States was at war with Germany and Italy. Letters between Ford of France and Ford of the U.S. between 1940 and July 1942 were analyzed by the Foreign Funds Control section of the Treasury Department. Their initial report concluded that until mid-1942:

(1) the business of the Ford subsidiaries in France substantially increased; (2) their production was solely for the benefit of the Germans and the countries under its occupation; (3) the Germans have "shown clearly their wish to protect the Ford interests" because of the attitude of strict neutrality maintained by Henry Ford and the late Edsel Ford; and (4) the increased activity of the French Ford subsidiaries on behalf of the Germans received the commendation of the Ford family in America.'

Similarly, the Rockefeller Chase Bank was accused of collaborating with the Nazis in World War II France, while Nelson Rockefeller had a soft job in Washington D.C.:

Substantially the same pattern of behavior was pursued by the Paris office of the Chase Bank during German occupation. An examination of the correspondence between Chase, New York, and Chase, France, from the date of the fall of France to May, 1942 discloses that: (1) the manager of the Parts office appeased and collaborated with the Germans to place the Chase banks in a 'privileged position;" (2) the Germans held the Chase Bank in a very special esteem - owing to the international activities of our (Chase) head office and the pleasant relations which the Paris branch has been maintaining with many of their (German) banks and their (German) local organizations and higher officers; (3) the Paris manager was "very vigorous in enforcing restrictions against Jewish property, even going so far as to refuse to release funds belonging to Jews in anticipation that a decree with retroactive provisions prohibiting such release might be published in the near future by the occupying authorities;" (4) the New York office despite the above information took no direct steps to remove the undesirable manager from the Paris office since it "might react against our (Chase) interests as we are dealing, not with a theory but with a situation."

An official report to then-Secretary of the Treasury Morgenthau concluded that:

These two situations [i.e., Ford and Chase Bank] convince us that it is imperative to investigate immediately on the spot the activities of subsidiaries of at least some of the larger American firms which were operating in France during German occupation . . .


Treasury officials urged that an investigation be started with the French subsidiaries of several American banks - that is, Chase, Morgan, National City, Guaranty, Bankers Trust, and American Express. Although Chase and Morgan were the only two banks to maintain French offices throughout the Nazi occupation, in September 1944 all the major New York banks were pressing the U.S. Government for permission to re-open pre-war branches, Subsequent Treasury investigation produced documentary evidence of collaboration between both Chase Bank and JR Morgan with the Nazis in World War II.

The directives prepared by the U.S. Control Council in Germany for the arrest and detention of war criminals refers to "Nazis" and "Nazi sympathizers":

a. You will search out, arrest, and hold, pending receipt by you of further instructions as to their disposition, Adolph Hitler, his chief Nazi associates, other war criminals and all persons who have participated in planning or carrying out Nazi enterprises involving or resulting in atrocities or war crimes.

Then follows a list of the categories of persons to be arrested, including:

(8) Nazis and Nazi sympathizers holding important and key positions in (a) National and Gau Civic and economic organizations; (b) corporations and other organizations in which the government has a major financial interest; (c) industry, commerce, agriculture, and finance; (d) education; (e) the judiciary; and (f) the press, publishing houses and other agencies disseminating news and propaganda.

Top American industrialists and financiers are covered by the categories listed above. Henry Ford and Edsel Ford respectively contributed money to Hitler and profited from German wartime production. Standard Oil of New Jersey, General Electric, General Motors, and I.T.T ... made financial or technical contributions which comprise prima facie evidence of "participating in planning or carrying out Nazi enterprises."

The U.S. Senate Kilgore Committee in 1946, investigating Nazi war crimes, stated:

The top I. C. Farben people and others ... were inclined at times to be very indignant. Their general attitude and expectation was that the war was over and we ought now to be assisting them in helping to get I. C. Farben and German industry back on its feet... Their friends [in the U.S. and England], so they said, would put a stop to activities such as these investigations and would see that they got the treatment which they regarded as proper and that assistance would be given to them to help reestablish their industry.


* WaIl Street financed the German cartels in the mid-1920s which in turn proceeded to bring Hitler to power.

* The financing for Hitler and his S. S. street thugs came in part from affiliates or subsidiaries of U.S. firms, including Henry Ford in 1922, payments by I. G. Farben and General Electric in 1933, followed by the Standard Oil of New Jersey and I.T.T. subsidiary payments to Heinrich Himmler up to 1944.

* U.S. multi-nationals under the control of Wall Street profited handsomely from Hitler's military construction program in the 1930s and at least until 1942.

* International bankers used political influence in the U. S. to cover up their wartime collaboration.

We find persistent recurrence of the same names Owen Young, Gerard Swope, Hjalmar Schacht, Bernard Baruch, etc.; the same international banks: J. P. Morgan, Guaranty Trust, Chase Bank...

This group of international bankers backed the Bolshevik Revolution and subsequently profited from the establishment of a Soviet Russia. This group backed Roosevelt and profited from New Deal socialism. This group also backed Hitler and certainly profited from German armament in the 1930s.

The financial elite knowingly and with premeditation assisted the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 in concert with German bankers. After profiting handsomely from the German hyper-inflationary distress of 1923, and planning to place the German reparations burden onto the backs of American investors, Wall Street found it had brought about the 1929 financial crisis.

Within the last decade or so, certainly since the 1960s, a steady flow of literature has presented a thesis that the United States is ruled by a self-perpetuating and unelected power elite. Even further, most of these books aver that this elite controls, or at the least heavily influences, all foreign and domestic policy decisions, and that no idea becomes respectable or is published in the United States without the tacit approval, or perhaps lack of disapproval, of this elitist circle.

Carroll Quigley, Tragedy and Hope

The powers of financial capitalism had another far-reaching aim, nothing less than to create a world system of financial control in private hands able to dominate the political system of each country and the economy of the world as a whole.

The United States has, in spite of the Constitution and its supposed constraints, become a quasi-totalitarian state. While we do not (yet) have the overt trappings of dictatorship, the concentration camps and the knock on the door at midnight, we most certainly do have threats and actions aimed at the survival of non-Establishment critics, use of the Internal Revenue Service to bring dissidents in line, and manipulation of the Constitution by a court system that is politically subservient to the Establishment.

It is in the pecuniary interests of the international bankers to centralize political power - and this centralization can best be achieved within a collectivist society, such as socialist Russia, national socialist Germany, or a Fabian socialist United States.

There can be no full understanding and appreciation of twentieth-century American politics and foreign policy without the realization that this financial elite effectively monopolizes Washington policy.

For most of the twentieth century the Federal Reserve System, particularly the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (which is outside the control of Congress, unaudited and uncontrolled, with the power to print money and create credit at will), has exercised a virtual monopoly over the direction of the American economy. In foreign affairs the Council on Foreign Relations, superficially an innocent forum for academics, businessmen, and politicians, contains within its shell, perhaps unknown to many of its members, a power center that unilaterally determines U.S. foreign policy. The major objective of this submerged - and obviously subversive - foreign policy is the acquisition of markets and economic power (profits, if you will), for a small group of giant multi-nationals under the virtual control of a few banking investment houses and controlling families.

Through foundations controlled by this elite, research by compliant and spineless academics, "conservatives" as well as "liberals," has been directed into channels useful for the objectives of the elite essentially to maintain this subversive and unconstitutional power apparatus.

Through publishing houses controlled by this same financial elite unwelcome books have been squashed and useful books promoted; fortunately publishing has few barriers to entry and is almost atomistically competitive. Through control of a dozen or so major newspapers, run by editors who think alike, public information can be almost orchestrated at will. Yesterday, the space program; today, an energy crisis or a campaign for ecology; tomorrow, a war in the Middle East or some other manufactured "crisis."

The total result of this manipulation of society by the Establishment elite has been four major wars in sixty years, a crippling national debt, abandonment of the Constitution, suppression of freedom and opportunity, and creation of a vast credibility gulf between the man in the street and Washington, D.C. While the transparent device of two major parties trumpeting artificial differences, circus-like conventions, and the cliché of "bipartisan foreign policy" no longer carries credibility, and the financial elite itself recognizes that its policies lack public acceptance, it is obviously prepared to go it alone without even nominal public support.

In brief, we now have to consider and debate whether this New York-based elitist Establishment is a subversive force operating with deliberation and knowledge to suppress the Constitution and a free society.

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